Food Borne Illnesses

Salmonellosis Examples of foods involved: poultry, red meats, eggs, dried foods, and dairy products. Salmonellae. This bacteria is wide- sprea d in nature and lives and grows in the intestinal tracts of human beings and animals. Sever headache, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. Infants, elderly, and persons with low resistance are most susceptible. Severe infections cause high fever and may even cause death. Transmitted by eating contaminated food, or by contact with infected persons or carriers of the infection. Also transmitted by insects, rodents, and pets.
Onset: Usually within 12 to 36 hours.
Duration: 2 to 7 day s. Salmonellae in food are destroyed by heating the food to 140°F and holding for 10 minutes or to higher temperaturesfor less time; for instance,
155°F for a few seconds. Refrigeration at 40°F inhibits the increase of Salmonellae, but they remain alive in foods in the refrigerator or freezer, and even in dried foods.

Perfringens Examples of foods involved: stews, soups, or gravies made from poultry or red meat. Clostridium Perfringens. Spore-forming bacteria that grow in the absence of oxygen. Temperatures reached in thorough cooking of most foods are sufficient to destroy vegetative cells, but heat – resistant spores can survive.
Nausea without vomiting, diarrhea, acute inflammation of stomach and intestines. Transmitted by eating food contaminated with abnormally large numbers of the bacteria.
Onset: Usually within 8 to 20 hours.
Duration: May persist for 24 hours. To prevent growth of surviving bacteria in cooked meats, gravies, and meat casseroles that are to be eaten later, cool foods rapidly and refrigerate promptly at
40°F or below, or hold them about 140°F.

Staphylococcal poisoning (frequently called staph)
Examples of foods involved: custards, egg salad, potato salad, chicken salad, macaroni salad, ham, salami, and cheese.
Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteria fairly resistant to heat. Bacteria growing in food produce a toxin that is extremely resistant to heat. Vomiting, diarrhea, prostration, abdominal cramps. Generally
mild and often attributed to other causes. Transmitted by food handlers who carry the bacteria and by eating food containing the toxin. Growth of bacteria that produces toxin is inhibited by keeping hot foods above 140°F and cold foods at or below 40°F. Toxin is destroyed by boiling for several hours, or heating the food in a pressure cooker at 240°F for 30 minutes.

Botulism Examples of foods involved: canned low- acid foods, and smoked fish Clostridium botulinum. Spore- forming organisms that grow and produce toxin in
the absence of oxygen, such as in a sealed container. Double vision, inability to swallow, speech difficulty, progressive respiratory paralysis. Fatality rate is high, about 65% in the United States. Transmitted by eating food containing the toxin.
Onset: Usually within 12 to 36 hours or longer.
Duration: 3 to 6 days. Bacterial spores in food are destroyed by high temperatures obtained only in the pressure canner.* More than 6 hours is needed to kill the spores at boiling temperature (212°F). The toxin is destroyed by boiling for 10 to 20 minutes; time required depends on kind of food.

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by Michael - July 31, 2017 at 1:35 am

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Breaking: Shots fired, casualties reported in Bundy Standoff

Live feed

This evening, the FBI made a legal, felony stop on a vehicle carrying Ammon Bundy and several other individuals.  After a shoot out with the FBI, four individuals were reportedly taken into custody, including Ammon Bundy.  Two individuals are reported to have been taken to the Burns hospital, which is currently on lock down.

FBI sources stated that those at the Refuge are currently free to leave unimpeded, implying that there might be action if they do not leave immediately.

Although those in custody have not been confirmed, we can safely assume that Buddha Cavalier was with Ammon.  Ryan Payne suffered multiple gunshot wounds and was taken to the hospital, according to local officials.


1811L:  Blaine Cooper has reportedly assumed leadership at the Refuge and has been told to leave immediately.  During a phone call with Pete Santilli, Pete can be overheard saying, “Blaine, please don’t do this.”  Blaine is reportedly wanting to make a stand.  Women and children are still at the Refuge.

1821L:  According to local government officials, Ryan Payne suffered multiple gunshot wounds and was taken to the Burns hospital.

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by Michael - January 27, 2016 at 2:52 am

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Survival Hacks

Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by Michael - December 13, 2015 at 3:47 pm

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Administering Medications

Intradermal Administration




• An intradermal (I0) injection is the

injection of a small amount of fluid into the dermal layer of the skin.
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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by Michael - at 3:45 pm

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5 Gallon Bucket Water Purification

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The Cardboard Box Oven


A cardboard box will make an oven — and it works just as well as your oven at home! There are different ways to make a cardboard box oven.

1. The open top Box Oven

Cut off the flaps so that the box has four straight sides and bottom. The bottom of the box will be the top of the oven.
Cover the box inside COMPLETELY with foil, placing the shiny side out.
To use the oven, place the pan with food to be baked on a footed grill over the lit charcoal briquets. The grill should be raised about ten inches above the charcoal. Set the cardboard oven over the food and charcoal. Prop up one end of the oven with a pebble to provide the air charcoal needs to burn – or cut air vents along the lower edge of the oven.

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by Michael - at 3:26 pm

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Surviving cold weather




One of the most difficult survival situations is a cold weather scenario. Remember, cold weather is an adversary that can be as dangerous as an enemy soldier. Every time you venture into the cold, you are pitting yourself against the elements. With a little knowledge of the environment, proper plans, and appropriate equipment, you can over- come the elements. As you remove one or more of these factors, survival becomes increasingly difficult. Remember, winter weather is highly variable. Prepare yourself to adapt to blizzard conditions even during sunny and clear weather.

Cold is a far greater threat to survival than it appears. It decreases your ability to think and weakens your will to do anything except to get warm. Cold is an insidious enemy; as

it numbs the mind and body, it subdues the will to survive. Cold makes it very easy to forget your ultimate goal—to survive.

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Be the first to comment - What do you think?  Posted by Michael - at 2:23 pm

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